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SQL Injection

Defeat one of the most common attacks

Many applications (Web-based applications and forms-based ["smart client"] applications) typically use data stored in a database. While you may have firewalls and other protections established when running your application, your application can still be open to an attacker gaining direct (or indirect) access to information in your database. The most common and dangerous attack technique is to use SQL injection.

SQL injection occurs when an attacker is able to insert a series of SQL statements into a "query" by manipulating data input into an application. This can happen because data input is not checked or "sanitized" before being entered into the database. All it takes is one input point through your application that can allow an attacker to retrieve sensitive and private information, change data, drop tables, and possibly shut down your database.

In this article, I will talk mostly about how SQL injection can be performed against SQL Server 2000 (using Transact-SQL code), but these techniques also apply to other databases such as Oracle, DB2, and MySQL, which vary only slightly in SQL syntax. I will also talk about best practices in writing correct code to counter SQL injection, as well as some ways to help audit your code for these problems.

How It's Done
SQL injection is primarily caused by developers who use "string-building" techniques for SQL statements that are executed in a database. An attacker can take advantage of code developed this way by passing commands directly to a database and then take advantage of a poorly secured system to leverage access privileges.

As an example of the simplest form of SQL injection, let's talk about a common entry point into most applications: a login or authentication form. The form may look something like Figure 1.

In order to identify the user's account, an SQL query may be written to look up the username and password in a users table in the database. For example, you may have C# code that builds the SQL statement this way:

string sql = "SELECT userid, first
name, lastname FROM users WHERE
username = '" + txtUsername.Text +
"' and password = '" + txtPassword.
Text + "'";

The user authenticates (i.e., "logs in") to the application by supplying their credentials, in this case, username and password. After this, if those credentials match what is stored in the database, the user is considered authenticated and the user's information is returned. For example, if the user name is "JohnSmith" and the password is "hsl33s7%," then the aforementioned SQL command that is sent into the database would look like this:

SELECT userid, firstname, last
name FROM users WHERE username =
'JohnSmith' and password = 'hsl33s7%'

Notice how the SQL query is formed. As it is written, I am only returning one user's information. However, what if I don't know the password or the username? This is the strategy of an attacker - figure out a way to exploit any vulnerability. In this case, the vulnerability is that I can send in valid SQL statements that will significantly change the final SQL query sent to the database. If you know a little SQL, you should know what happens when I send in this value in the Username field:

' OR 1=1 --

You get this result SQL statement:

SELECT userid, firstname, lastname
FROM users WHERE username = '' OR
1=1 --

What's happening here is the quote (') is used to end the open quote in the first username check and this is combined with a logical statement that will always evaluate to true ("OR 1=1"). Finally, SQL comments (--) are used to make SQL Server ignore the rest of the SQL query. By using this logical SQL query result, you can get a list of all users without knowing any username or password!

Advanced SQL Injection
At this point, if an attacker has found an entry point with problem code similar to the code shown above, then many valid SQL statements can be sent into the database. Taking the original SQL query above, I could send in this statement in the Username field:

' UNION SELECT null, name, null from
dbo.sysobjects where xtype = 'U' --

As you may know, when you form a UNION statement, you must have the same number of fields as the other SQL statement you are forming the UNION with. In this case, we knew there were three columns, but an attacker can use this method to determine how many fields there are to get the correct results. This particular statement gives you all the names of the tables contained within the database! Again, this is SQL Server-specific, but a similar construct could be used for Oracle, DB2, etc. An attacker can continue sending in SQL statements including INSERTs, UPDATEs, DELETEs, and even the Transact SQL command "SHUTDOWN" (yes, that will shutdown the database!).

Unfortunately, it doesn't end there. Many databases run with a high privileged account, or applications connect to the database with a high privileged account (i.e., "sa" - system administrator account). An attacker can use this fact to further make calls to extended stored procedures such as xp_cmdshell to drop down into a command shell on the database server to then call applications, import files, download password files, and ultimately use the database server as a starting point to attack other computers within the internal network. The possibilities are almost endless.

Protecting Against SQL Injection
How do you guard against SQL injection? One key technique that security experts talk about often and loud is Don't Trust User Input. In our example above, we trust the user to enter the correct credential information in the correct format (no SQL statements imbedded in the input). We are not validating the format of that input, and are therefore blindly letting that data go through the database. Don't do this!

When validating any data input, you should always check for what is expected and correct, and throw away the rest. What does that mean? One obvious method that many applications try to foil this type of attack is to set up what are called signature checks. For example, if I look for "' OR 1=1 -- " in the input data, I will certainly catch that SQL injection attempt. However, these are all equivalent expressions:

' OR 'Test'='Test' --
' OR 2=2 --
' OR 2>1 --
' OR 'Test' IN ('Test') --

You could try to look for a space between UNION and SELECT as above, but sending in the following could thwart this move:

' UNION /* */SELECT null, name, null
from dbo.sysobjects where xtype =
'U' --

In this case, the /* */ is another comment form. It will be ignored by the database, and you will again have a UNION SELECT construct being sent in. The bottom line regarding signature checks is that almost no matter what invalid input you try to check for (i.e., in this case, valid SQL statements), another variation of an SQL statement can be sent in and will be missed by your checks.

The key is to check for the good input and reject the rest. In our case, the best way to do this is to sanitize the input by using parameterized queries. The earlier code example can be rewritten this way:

string sql = "SELECT userid, first
name, lastname FROM users WHERE
username = @username and password =
SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(sql);
SqlDbType.NVarChar).Value = txtUser
SqlDbType.NVarChar).Value = txtPass

This method will perform type-checking for us, as well as convert the data input (in this case) into a literal string value rather than an SQL statement to be executed. In other words, with this technique, the exploit "' OR 1=1 --" becomes:

SELECT userid, firstname, lastname
FROM users WHERE username = ''' OR
1=1 -- ''' and password = ''

which will return no records because the SQL query will try to do a literal match on "' OR 1=1 --".

Another technique an attacker will use is inspecting error messages to determine what's available through your application. Never display raw error messages to the user when an SQL statement fails. Also, don't display messages that are too helpful to the attacker. For example, when a login fails, rather than saying, "User name 'JohnSmith' has been found, but the password is incorrect. Please try again," say something like, "Login failed. Please try again." This indicates there was a problem, but doesn't tell the attacker any extra information they don't already know about your data.

One other key security technique is to develop your applications following the Principle of Least Privilege. This means not running your database with a high-privileged account and not setting your applications to connect to the database with a high-privileged account. Use a low-privileged SQL user, or, even better; use Windows Security with a domain or local user account to connect to the database. By restricting the privileges of the account with which your application connects to the database as well as what account the database is running under, you can minimize the privileged access if an attacker is able to get through your application using one of the SQL injection techniques above. Using both methods of parameterized queries and secured database access, you are also practicing the security technique of Defense in Depth.

Though nothing replaces due diligence in applying the secure coding best practices covered above and securing your database, there are some tools you can use to help you pinpoint possible vulnerabilities that currently exist in your code. One nice tool, and it is free, is Microsoft FxCop (at the time of this writing, the latest release is 1.312 for the .NET Framework 1.1 and it can be found here: This is a great auditing tool to run against your existing .NET code to determine if it conforms to a set of rules that more or less match Microsoft's coding best practices for the .NET Framework. Among the set of rules in the latest version are some Security Rules that watch for SQL injection vulnerabilities.

One of the FxCop Security Rules found the original concatenated strings code above and described the rule used this way:

SQL queries built up from user input are potentially vulnerable to injection attacks. SQL Server, as well as other database servers, supports parameterized SQL queries, a feature that will reduce the risk for injection attacks.

By changing the code to use parameterized queries, this FxCop rule was satisfied.

Every developer should understand how SQL injection works and the best ways to defend against it. Inspect your own code for some of the weaknesses mentioned in this article and be diligent about fixing your code if you find these problems. Don't get caught not knowing these fundamental secure programming techniques. You can find out more about other advanced SQL injection techniques at and, among other great resources from Application Security, Inc. ( and SPI Dynamics (

More Stories By Robert Hurlbut

Robert Hurlbut is an independent software architect/developer, consultant, and owner of Hurlbut Consulting, Inc. He is also a Microsoft MVP for Visual C#. Robert specializes in application security, distributed architectures, and database architecture and development. He speaks at industry conferences, including WIN-DEV,
New England Code Camp, Heartland Developers Conference, and DevTeach. He has a .NET blog at

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