|By Mujtaba Syed||
|June 7, 2004 12:00 AM EDT||
Why Does Windows Need a New Storage Subsystem?
The hardware industry is confidently striding towards conquering the 3T challenge (a teraflops processor, a terabyte hard disk, and a terabits per sec bandwidth). Increase in the size of hard disk storage has been complemented by the exponential increase in the production of digital data. The amount of digital data being born daily is so phenomenal that the pen, the paper, and the typewriter have achieved the status of endangered stationery. Digital data is stored by operating systems on magnetic media - like hard disks. Windows uses file systems like NTFS and FAT32 to organize data on hard disks that are divided into logical drives. Each drive has a root folder, which can have one or more files and folders. Data is stored in files.
Data has personality. It can be documents (text, DOC, PDF, RTF, PostScript formats), images (bitmap, GIF, JPEG, PNG, WMF formats), audio (WAV, MP3, WMA, AIFF, formats), video (MOV, MPEG, AVI, ASF, QuickTime formats), and more. Along with data, these formats also store rich metadata. NTFS and FAT32 are capable of reading only basic metadata from files, like their name, size, date modified, and type (derived from the file extension). So, if I want to search all songs of a particular artist, I can't do it just by using the file system. I'll need a specialized application like Windows Media Player, which is capable of reading the rich metadata provided by all audio files.
What is "WinFS"?
"WinFS" is the Windows storage platform of the future. It solves many of the problems associated with current file systems by storing data and its metadata together. This way data can be organized, searched, shared, and related depending upon what it is and not what it's called (filename)! "WinFS" also makes it easy to deal with non-file-backed data like personal contacts, e-mail messages, and event calendar.
"WinFS" allows a user to organize data with great flexibility. Using "WinFS", a user can group data according to common characteristics, create a customized containment hierarchy to hold data, and associate one piece of data to another via relationships. This organizational flexibility provides the user with greater flexibility when searching for data. The user can search for data based on its attributes, its relationship with other data, and by its storage location.
Because of its ability to organize data based on various parameters, "WinFS" presents data as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) instead of as a tree (as in NTFS and FAT32). In NTFS and FAT32, since data is stored as a tree, it can be located based only on a single criteria (its directory path), while in "WinFS", since data is stored as a graph it can be searched based on multiple criteria.
"WinFS" facilitates data sharing among various applications by giving file-backed data (documents, audio video, media, and so on) as well as non file-backed (e-mail, contacts, appointments, and so on), permanent residency status in the operating system and providing a unique API to access them. Now different applications can use these common pieces of data without worrying about maintaining individual data stores and the associated synchronization.
WinFS Building Blocks
Figure 1 illustrates the various building blocks of "WinFS".
"WinFS" does not supplant NTFS; rather, it utilizes the basic file system services of NTFS. The core building block of "WinFS" includes the relational storage engine that provides file system services like ACL support, import/export, and quota management.
"WinFS" defines a rich data model that resides on top of a relational storage engine. "WinFS" represents a piece of data (item) as a tuple in a relation. The attributes of the tuple describe the piece of data. Items can be related to each other by defining relationships between the tuples. "WinFS" also provides the ability to extend items and relationships.
"WinFS" has built-in schemas to understand the rich metadata associated with your data. Some of the built-in schemas are for common data like documents, e-mail, contacts, appointments, tasks, and more. "WinFS" also allows you to write custom schemas for your own data.
"WinFS" provides certain services like synchronization and rules. These services are layered on top of core "WinFS" and provide "WinFS" with extended functionality. For example, the synchronization service enables you to synchronize two or more "WinFS" stores.
"WinFS"provides support for multiple programming models: object-oriented, relational, and XML based. "WinFS" can also be programmed using the Win32 API.
"WinFS" Type System Basics
"WinFS" is a "strongly typed" storage system. All data stored in "WinFS" is typed; that is, it is an object of some "WinFS" type. To understand the "WinFS" type system, we first have to understand the following four concepts:
- Items: All data is stored in WinFS as a type specialized from Item (System.Storage.Item). Examples of types that derive from the Item are: Contact, Document, Task, and Event (all of which are found in the System.Storage.Core namespace)
- ScalarTypes: An atomic piece of information that describes an item.
- NestedTypes: A set of information that can be stored about an item. A nested type can have other nested types and scalar types in it.
- Relationships: Relate one item (source) to another
(target). Relationships can be of three types:
- Holding relationship: The source controls the lifetime of the target. These relationships are many-to-many, that is, a source can "hold" multiple targets and a target can be "held" by multiple sources. If a target looses all sources, it's deleted.
- Reference relationship: Similar to a holding relationship but without the lifetime management of the target.
- Embedding relationship: The source embeds the target. Strictly one-to-one.
In this section, we'll take a brief look at the object-oriented managed API provided by "WinFS". This API allows us to search, relate, and act upon data stored by WinFS
.An installation of Longhorn will have a single instance of "WinFS" service running on it. A "WinFS" instance can maintain multiple data stores. Each data source is referenced by its UNC path syntax as shown below:
All "WinFS" instances have a default store (DefaultStore). The default store on your "Longhorn" system will be called:
To program "WinFS", you have to get hold of an ItemContext object. This is done by calling the static Open method of the ItemContext class. The method is passed the UNC path of the store you want to program. If you pass nothing, the ItemContext refers to the default store.
All the types that are required to program "WinFS" can be found in three assemblies: System.Storage. dll, System.Storage.Schema.dll, and WinCorLib.dll.
As an example, Listing 1 is code that prints out all folders in the default store.
A very useful class provided by "WinFS" is the ItemSearcher (System.Storage.ItemSearcher) class, which allows you to search for items in a particular item type. Each item type (for example, Contact, Document, Folder, Event, and so on) has a static method called GetSearcher that takes in the ItemContext object and returns the ItemSearcher. Using the ItemSearcher, you can search for the items you need.
For example, Listing 2 uses the ItemSearcher to search for all documents whose title begins with the string 'Result'.
In this brief survey of "WinFS", we have seen that the future of data is with context-based storage systems. "WinFS" will provide the basis on which advanced data-mining tools are going to be built for the personal computer.
|Mujtaba Syed 06/08/04 03:11:22 PM EDT|
It''s corrected now.
|Mujtaba Syed 06/08/04 02:29:18 PM EDT|
Somehow the online version is showing WinFX at all places it should show WinFS! We will get this rectified ASAP. Thanks.
An entirely new security model is needed for the Internet of Things, or is it? Can we save some old and tested controls for this new and different environment? In his session at @ThingsExpo, New York's at the Javits Center, Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, reviewed hands-on lessons with IoT devices and reveal a new risk balance you might not expect. Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, has more than nineteen years' experience managing global security operations and assessments, including a decade of leading incident response and digital forensics. He is co-author of t...
Nov. 22, 2014 03:45 PM EST Reads: 733
The definition of IoT is not new, in fact it’s been around for over a decade. What has changed is the public's awareness that the technology we use on a daily basis has caught up on the vision of an always on, always connected world. If you look into the details of what comprises the IoT, you’ll see that it includes everything from cloud computing, Big Data analytics, “Things,” Web communication, applications, network, storage, etc. It is essentially including everything connected online from hardware to software, or as we like to say, it’s an Internet of many different things. The difference ...
Nov. 22, 2014 03:45 PM EST Reads: 150
Cloud Expo 2014 TV commercials will feature @ThingsExpo, which was launched in June, 2014 at New York City's Javits Center as the largest 'Internet of Things' event in the world.
Nov. 22, 2014 03:30 PM EST Reads: 1,067
The major cloud platforms defy a simple, side-by-side analysis. Each of the major IaaS public-cloud platforms offers their own unique strengths and functionality. Options for on-site private cloud are diverse as well, and must be designed and deployed while taking existing legacy architecture and infrastructure into account. Then the reality is that most enterprises are embarking on a hybrid cloud strategy and programs. In this Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo (http://www.CloudComputingExpo.com), moderated by Ashar Baig, Research Director, Cloud, at Gigaom Research, Nate Gordon, Director of T...
Nov. 22, 2014 07:00 AM EST Reads: 1,270
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems at Red Hat, described how to revolutioniz...
Nov. 21, 2014 09:15 PM EST Reads: 1,180
Technology is enabling a new approach to collecting and using data. This approach, commonly referred to as the "Internet of Things" (IoT), enables businesses to use real-time data from all sorts of things including machines, devices and sensors to make better decisions, improve customer service, and lower the risk in the creation of new revenue opportunities. In his General Session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Dave Wagstaff, Vice President and Chief Architect at BSQUARE Corporation, discuss the real benefits to focus on, how to understand the requirements of a successful solution, the flow of ...
Nov. 21, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,264
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, and physical persons. In the IoT vision, every new "thing" - sensor, actuator, data source, data con...
Nov. 21, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,183
"BSQUARE is in the business of selling software solutions for smart connected devices. It's obvious that IoT has moved from being a technology to being a fundamental part of business, and in the last 18 months people have said let's figure out how to do it and let's put some focus on it, " explained Dave Wagstaff, VP & Chief Architect, at BSQUARE Corporation, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Nov. 21, 2014 07:00 PM EST Reads: 1,144
ARMONK, N.Y., Nov. 20, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced that it is bringing a greater level of control, security and flexibility to cloud-based application development and delivery with a single-tenant version of Bluemix, IBM's platform-as-a-service. The new platform enables developers to build ap...
Nov. 20, 2014 11:00 PM EST Reads: 1,261
Focused on this fast-growing market’s needs, Vitesse Semiconductor Corporation (Nasdaq: VTSS), a leading provider of IC solutions to advance "Ethernet Everywhere" in Carrier, Enterprise and Internet of Things (IoT) networks, introduced its IStaX™ software (VSC6815SDK), a robust protocol stack to simplify deployment and management of Industrial-IoT network applications such as Industrial Ethernet switching, surveillance, video distribution, LCD signage, intelligent sensors, and metering equipment. Leveraging technologies proven in the Carrier and Enterprise markets, IStaX is designed to work ac...
Nov. 20, 2014 09:15 PM EST Reads: 1,282
"There is a natural synchronization between the business models, the IoT is there to support ,” explained Brendan O'Brien, Co-founder and Chief Architect of Aria Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at the 15th International Cloud Expo®, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Nov. 20, 2014 07:30 PM EST Reads: 1,460
C-Labs LLC, a leading provider of remote and mobile access for the Internet of Things (IoT), announced the appointment of John Traynor to the position of chief operating officer. Previously a strategic advisor to the firm, Mr. Traynor will now oversee sales, marketing, finance, and operations. Mr. Traynor is based out of the C-Labs office in Redmond, Washington. He reports to Chris Muench, Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Traynor brings valuable business leadership and technology industry expertise to C-Labs. With over 30 years' experience in the high-tech sector, John Traynor has held numerous...
Nov. 20, 2014 06:00 PM EST Reads: 1,242
Bit6 today issued a challenge to the technology community implementing Web Real Time Communication (WebRTC). To leap beyond WebRTC’s significant limitations and fully leverage its underlying value to accelerate innovation, application developers need to consider the entire communications ecosystem.
Nov. 20, 2014 04:45 PM EST Reads: 998
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that it is now accepting Keynote Proposals. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades.
Nov. 20, 2014 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,477
The Internet of Things is not new. Historically, smart businesses have used its basic concept of leveraging data to drive better decision making and have capitalized on those insights to realize additional revenue opportunities. So, what has changed to make the Internet of Things one of the hottest topics in tech? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Gray, Director, Embedded and Internet of Things, discussed the underlying factors that are driving the economics of intelligent systems. Discover how hardware commoditization, the ubiquitous nature of connectivity, and the emergence of Big Data a...
Nov. 20, 2014 12:30 PM EST Reads: 1,716
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
Nov. 18, 2014 09:00 PM EST Reads: 1,967
SYS-CON Events announced today that Windstream, a leading provider of advanced network and cloud communications, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Windstream (Nasdaq: WIN), a FORTUNE 500 and S&P 500 company, is a leading provider of advanced network communications, including cloud computing and managed services, to businesses nationwide. The company also offers broadband, phone and digital TV services to consumers primarily in rural areas.
Nov. 18, 2014 08:15 PM EST Reads: 1,523
SYS-CON Events announced today that IDenticard will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IDenticard™ is the security division of Brady Corp (NYSE: BRC), a $1.5 billion manufacturer of identification products. We have small-company values with the strength and stability of a major corporation. IDenticard offers local sales, support and service to our customers across the United States and Canada. Our partner network encompasses some 300 of the world's leading systems integrators and security s...
Nov. 18, 2014 08:15 PM EST Reads: 1,461
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. He also discussed how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics discussed were barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold. Mike Kavis is Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Pa...
Nov. 18, 2014 01:30 PM EST Reads: 1,970
Cloud Expo 2014 TV commercials will feature @ThingsExpo, which was launched in June, 2014 at New York City's Javits Center as the largest 'Internet of Things' event in the world. The next @ThingsExpo will take place November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, in Santa Clara, California. Since its launch in 2008, Cloud Expo TV commercials have been aired and CNBC, Fox News Network, and Bloomberg TV. Please enjoy our 2014 commercial.
Nov. 13, 2014 05:00 AM EST Reads: 3,516