|By Mujtaba Syed||
|June 7, 2004 12:00 AM EDT||
Why Does Windows Need a New Storage Subsystem?
The hardware industry is confidently striding towards conquering the 3T challenge (a teraflops processor, a terabyte hard disk, and a terabits per sec bandwidth). Increase in the size of hard disk storage has been complemented by the exponential increase in the production of digital data. The amount of digital data being born daily is so phenomenal that the pen, the paper, and the typewriter have achieved the status of endangered stationery. Digital data is stored by operating systems on magnetic media - like hard disks. Windows uses file systems like NTFS and FAT32 to organize data on hard disks that are divided into logical drives. Each drive has a root folder, which can have one or more files and folders. Data is stored in files.
Data has personality. It can be documents (text, DOC, PDF, RTF, PostScript formats), images (bitmap, GIF, JPEG, PNG, WMF formats), audio (WAV, MP3, WMA, AIFF, formats), video (MOV, MPEG, AVI, ASF, QuickTime formats), and more. Along with data, these formats also store rich metadata. NTFS and FAT32 are capable of reading only basic metadata from files, like their name, size, date modified, and type (derived from the file extension). So, if I want to search all songs of a particular artist, I can't do it just by using the file system. I'll need a specialized application like Windows Media Player, which is capable of reading the rich metadata provided by all audio files.
What is "WinFS"?
"WinFS" is the Windows storage platform of the future. It solves many of the problems associated with current file systems by storing data and its metadata together. This way data can be organized, searched, shared, and related depending upon what it is and not what it's called (filename)! "WinFS" also makes it easy to deal with non-file-backed data like personal contacts, e-mail messages, and event calendar.
"WinFS" allows a user to organize data with great flexibility. Using "WinFS", a user can group data according to common characteristics, create a customized containment hierarchy to hold data, and associate one piece of data to another via relationships. This organizational flexibility provides the user with greater flexibility when searching for data. The user can search for data based on its attributes, its relationship with other data, and by its storage location.
Because of its ability to organize data based on various parameters, "WinFS" presents data as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) instead of as a tree (as in NTFS and FAT32). In NTFS and FAT32, since data is stored as a tree, it can be located based only on a single criteria (its directory path), while in "WinFS", since data is stored as a graph it can be searched based on multiple criteria.
"WinFS" facilitates data sharing among various applications by giving file-backed data (documents, audio video, media, and so on) as well as non file-backed (e-mail, contacts, appointments, and so on), permanent residency status in the operating system and providing a unique API to access them. Now different applications can use these common pieces of data without worrying about maintaining individual data stores and the associated synchronization.
WinFS Building Blocks
Figure 1 illustrates the various building blocks of "WinFS".
"WinFS" does not supplant NTFS; rather, it utilizes the basic file system services of NTFS. The core building block of "WinFS" includes the relational storage engine that provides file system services like ACL support, import/export, and quota management.
"WinFS" defines a rich data model that resides on top of a relational storage engine. "WinFS" represents a piece of data (item) as a tuple in a relation. The attributes of the tuple describe the piece of data. Items can be related to each other by defining relationships between the tuples. "WinFS" also provides the ability to extend items and relationships.
"WinFS" has built-in schemas to understand the rich metadata associated with your data. Some of the built-in schemas are for common data like documents, e-mail, contacts, appointments, tasks, and more. "WinFS" also allows you to write custom schemas for your own data.
"WinFS" provides certain services like synchronization and rules. These services are layered on top of core "WinFS" and provide "WinFS" with extended functionality. For example, the synchronization service enables you to synchronize two or more "WinFS" stores.
"WinFS"provides support for multiple programming models: object-oriented, relational, and XML based. "WinFS" can also be programmed using the Win32 API.
"WinFS" Type System Basics
"WinFS" is a "strongly typed" storage system. All data stored in "WinFS" is typed; that is, it is an object of some "WinFS" type. To understand the "WinFS" type system, we first have to understand the following four concepts:
- Items: All data is stored in WinFS as a type specialized from Item (System.Storage.Item). Examples of types that derive from the Item are: Contact, Document, Task, and Event (all of which are found in the System.Storage.Core namespace)
- ScalarTypes: An atomic piece of information that describes an item.
- NestedTypes: A set of information that can be stored about an item. A nested type can have other nested types and scalar types in it.
- Relationships: Relate one item (source) to another
(target). Relationships can be of three types:
- Holding relationship: The source controls the lifetime of the target. These relationships are many-to-many, that is, a source can "hold" multiple targets and a target can be "held" by multiple sources. If a target looses all sources, it's deleted.
- Reference relationship: Similar to a holding relationship but without the lifetime management of the target.
- Embedding relationship: The source embeds the target. Strictly one-to-one.
In this section, we'll take a brief look at the object-oriented managed API provided by "WinFS". This API allows us to search, relate, and act upon data stored by WinFS
.An installation of Longhorn will have a single instance of "WinFS" service running on it. A "WinFS" instance can maintain multiple data stores. Each data source is referenced by its UNC path syntax as shown below:
All "WinFS" instances have a default store (DefaultStore). The default store on your "Longhorn" system will be called:
To program "WinFS", you have to get hold of an ItemContext object. This is done by calling the static Open method of the ItemContext class. The method is passed the UNC path of the store you want to program. If you pass nothing, the ItemContext refers to the default store.
All the types that are required to program "WinFS" can be found in three assemblies: System.Storage. dll, System.Storage.Schema.dll, and WinCorLib.dll.
As an example, Listing 1 is code that prints out all folders in the default store.
A very useful class provided by "WinFS" is the ItemSearcher (System.Storage.ItemSearcher) class, which allows you to search for items in a particular item type. Each item type (for example, Contact, Document, Folder, Event, and so on) has a static method called GetSearcher that takes in the ItemContext object and returns the ItemSearcher. Using the ItemSearcher, you can search for the items you need.
For example, Listing 2 uses the ItemSearcher to search for all documents whose title begins with the string 'Result'.
In this brief survey of "WinFS", we have seen that the future of data is with context-based storage systems. "WinFS" will provide the basis on which advanced data-mining tools are going to be built for the personal computer.
|Mujtaba Syed 06/08/04 03:11:22 PM EDT|
It''s corrected now.
|Mujtaba Syed 06/08/04 02:29:18 PM EDT|
Somehow the online version is showing WinFX at all places it should show WinFS! We will get this rectified ASAP. Thanks.
Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome,” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
Aug. 31, 2015 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 364
The Internet of Things is in the early stages of mainstream deployment but it promises to unlock value and rapidly transform how organizations manage, operationalize, and monetize their assets. IoT is a complex structure of hardware, sensors, applications, analytics and devices that need to be able to communicate geographically and across all functions. Once the data is collected from numerous endpoints, the challenge then becomes converting it into actionable insight.
Aug. 31, 2015 07:00 PM EDT
Consumer IoT applications provide data about the user that just doesn’t exist in traditional PC or mobile web applications. This rich data, or “context,” enables the highly personalized consumer experiences that characterize many consumer IoT apps. This same data is also providing brands with unprecedented insight into how their connected products are being used, while, at the same time, powering highly targeted engagement and marketing opportunities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Nathan Treloar, President and COO of Bebaio, will explore examples of brands transforming their businesses by t...
Aug. 31, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 243
With the Apple Watch making its way onto wrists all over the world, it’s only a matter of time before it becomes a staple in the workplace. In fact, Forrester reported that 68 percent of technology and business decision-makers characterize wearables as a top priority for 2015. Recognizing their business value early on, FinancialForce.com was the first to bring ERP to wearables, helping streamline communication across front and back office functions. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kevin Roberts, GM of Platform at FinancialForce.com, will discuss the value of business applications on wearable ...
Aug. 31, 2015 03:15 PM EDT
While many app developers are comfortable building apps for the smartphone, there is a whole new world out there. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Narayan Sainaney, Co-founder and CTO of Mojio, will discuss how the business case for connected car apps is growing and, with open platform companies having already done the heavy lifting, there really is no barrier to entry.
Aug. 31, 2015 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 141
With the proliferation of connected devices underpinning new Internet of Things systems, Brandon Schulz, Director of Luxoft IoT – Retail, will be looking at the transformation of the retail customer experience in brick and mortar stores in his session at @ThingsExpo. Questions he will address include: Will beacons drop to the wayside like QR codes, or be a proximity-based profit driver? How will the customer experience change in stores of all types when everything can be instrumented and analyzed? As an area of investment, how might a retail company move towards an innovation methodolo...
Aug. 31, 2015 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 457
The Internet of Things (IoT) is about the digitization of physical assets including sensors, devices, machines, gateways, and the network. It creates possibilities for significant value creation and new revenue generating business models via data democratization and ubiquitous analytics across IoT networks. The explosion of data in all forms in IoT requires a more robust and broader lens in order to enable smarter timely actions and better outcomes. Business operations become the key driver of IoT applications and projects. Business operations, IT, and data scientists need advanced analytics t...
Aug. 31, 2015 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 417
Contrary to mainstream media attention, the multiple possibilities of how consumer IoT will transform our everyday lives aren’t the only angle of this headline-gaining trend. There’s a huge opportunity for “industrial IoT” and “Smart Cities” to impact the world in the same capacity – especially during critical situations. For example, a community water dam that needs to release water can leverage embedded critical communications logic to alert the appropriate individuals, on the right device, as soon as they are needed to take action.
Aug. 31, 2015 12:00 PM EDT
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Aug. 31, 2015 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 896
SYS-CON Events announced today that Micron Technology, Inc., a global leader in advanced semiconductor systems, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Micron’s broad portfolio of high-performance memory technologies – including DRAM, NAND and NOR Flash – is the basis for solid state drives, modules, multichip packages and other system solutions. Backed by more than 35 years of technology leadership, Micron's memory solutions enable the world's most innovative computing, consumer,...
Aug. 31, 2015 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 230
As more intelligent IoT applications shift into gear, they’re merging into the ever-increasing traffic flow of the Internet. It won’t be long before we experience bottlenecks, as IoT traffic peaks during rush hours. Organizations that are unprepared will find themselves by the side of the road unable to cross back into the fast lane. As billions of new devices begin to communicate and exchange data – will your infrastructure be scalable enough to handle this new interconnected world?
Aug. 31, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 161
Through WebRTC, audio and video communications are being embedded more easily than ever into applications, helping carriers, enterprises and independent software vendors deliver greater functionality to their end users. With today’s business world increasingly focused on outcomes, users’ growing calls for ease of use, and businesses craving smarter, tighter integration, what’s the next step in delivering a richer, more immersive experience? That richer, more fully integrated experience comes about through a Communications Platform as a Service which allows for messaging, screen sharing, video...
Aug. 31, 2015 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 658
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies leverage disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevOps to advance innovation and increase agility. Specializing in designing, imple...
Aug. 31, 2015 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 305
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lee Williams, a producer of the first smartphones and tablets, will talk about how he is now applying his experience in mobile technology to the design and development of the next generation of Environmental and Sustainability Services at ETwater. He will explain how M2M controllers work through wirelessly connected remote controls; and specifically delve into a retrofit option that reverse-engineers control codes of existing conventional controller systems so they don't have to be replaced and are instantly converted to become smart, connected devices.
Aug. 31, 2015 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 124
SYS-CON Events announced today that IceWarp will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IceWarp, the leader of cloud and on-premise messaging, delivers secured email, chat, documents, conferencing and collaboration to today's mobile workforce, all in one unified interface
Aug. 31, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 423
WebRTC has had a real tough three or four years, and so have those working with it. Only a few short years ago, the development world were excited about WebRTC and proclaiming how awesome it was. You might have played with the technology a couple of years ago, only to find the extra infrastructure requirements were painful to implement and poorly documented. This probably left a bitter taste in your mouth, especially when things went wrong.
Aug. 31, 2015 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 454
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of streaming data in the cloud with an enterprise grade SLA. It features built-in integration with Azur...
Aug. 28, 2015 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 219
Akana has announced the availability of the new Akana Healthcare Solution. The API-driven solution helps healthcare organizations accelerate their transition to being secure, digitally interoperable businesses. It leverages the Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (HL7 FHIR) standard to enable broader business use of medical data. Akana developed the Healthcare Solution in response to healthcare businesses that want to increase electronic, multi-device access to health records while reducing operating costs and complying with government regulations.
Aug. 26, 2015 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 193
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
Aug. 2, 2015 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 556
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
Aug. 1, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 486