Welcome!

Microsoft Cloud Authors: Pat Romanski, Lori MacVittie, Andreas Grabner, Jim Kaskade, John Basso

Related Topics: Microsoft Cloud

Microsoft Cloud: Article

The Myth of .NET Purity

The Myth of .NET Purity

There is an increasing amount of discussion around the topic of ".NET Purity" in development circles. When selling an application the question often arises "is your application 100% .NET?" or "How much of your application is .NET?" There is an implied qualitative judgment behind these questions and it's usually pejorative.

The implication is that an application that is entirely written in .NET, presumably without any interoperation with COM or direct calls to the Win32 API, is superior to an application that is a combination of technologies.

Certainly .NET represents a fantastic leap in developer productivity and puts a clean, consistent face on the services that the Windows Platform provides. For many years the set of interfaces provided by the Windows OS Platform - collectively known as the Windows SDK - have been exposed to developers as exported "C"-style functions in DLLs, and in recent years, via the Component Object Model (COM).

Common Language Runtime or Virtual Machine?
Often the .NET Common Language Runtime, or CLR, is directly compared to the Java Virtual Machine. Initially, there are many clear parallels: both are "managed" environments that provide a component container, both consume a "partially chewed" intermediate language, both provide low-level services like garbage collection and threading conveniences.

While these parallels are superficially compelling, these two implementations differ fundamentally in philosophy. Comparing the CLR to the VM is reasonable only to a certain point - their architectural goals are ultimately different.

Sun promotes a marketing program called 100% Pure Java, which is certainly appropriate if code portability and underlying operating system transparency is a desirable endpoint. However, many 3rd party Java Application Servers create a competitive advantage by judicious use of "C" function calls directly down (via Java Native Interface or JNI) into their host Operating Systems value-added services that are not exposed by the Java Application Platform (the Java Class Library). Calling into the core platform is the only way to make use of base functionality that is only presented via a native interface!

The Java VM is truly a "virtual machine" that's ultimate goal is to abstract (virtualize) away the underlying Operating System and provide an idealized (not necessarily ideal, but idealized) environment for development. The Java Virtual machine is also intimately united with the API - the Java Application Platform, which services provided by the VM implementation. Regardless of where you run your compiled Java code, you will run within the context of the Virtual Machine and ostensibly link with supplied Java Platform APIs.

The .NET Common Language Runtime is named well as it is used more as a Language Runtime than a Virtual Machine. While it successfully abstracts away aspects of underlying hardware through its use of an Intermediate Language, when the CLR is combined with the .NET Framework Library of APIs it is married to the underlying platform, which is Windows. The CLR provides all the facilities of the Windows Platform to any .NET-enabled Language.

.NET Framework Library
The Windows Platform has dozens and dozens of high-level system services that are exposed by thousands of APIs. This large library of functionality encompasses various levels of richness. A low-level API may open a file off a disk, while a high-level one might play an audio file. The designers of the .NET Framework wanted to create a consistent object-oriented face on a rich legacy of platform functionality. The CLR and .NET Framework work together to expose the capabilities within the Windows Platform, including those that may have previously been hidden away in difficult or little known APIs.

While the CLR provides a new paradigm for application development, it does not close the door on existing libraries. The CLR provides interop services to the developer but the biggest consumer of these services are the .NET Class Libraries that unlock existing Windows Platform abilities via a .NET API!

For example, when sending email using the .NET Framework Library class System.Web.Mail.SmtpMail, the Class Library uses a helper class that abstracts the existing CDO (Collaboration Data Objects) COM Library. This is just one example where a .NET Library developer chose to rely on a production-ready reliable existing library rather than write something from scratch. This example and dozens of others with the Library not withstanding, the Common Language Runtime still at some point needs to work with the Windows internal APIs.

If Microsoft were to truly virtualize the machine, they would have marginalized their investment in the Windows platform. Certainly it behooved the designers to make transitions to existing libraries as painless as possible. They have enabled this with NET » COM Interop via both Runtime- and COM-Callable Wrappers, the ability to tap into standard Win32 Platform APIs via a technology called P/Invoke (short for Platform Invoke) as well as other options. When writing code that is hosted in the CLR the vast resources of platform are just sitting under the developer - the runtime is transparent rather than virtual! This marks a fundamentally different view of the platform that other virtualizing machine implementations.

While creating a new fresh application using only .NET may offer some benefits in the arenas of deployment or marketing, these benefits may be not realized when weighed against the cost of rewriting non-.NET components in .NET when those legacy components could have been leveraged. A "pure" .NET solution can only make use of either those pieces of functionality that can be achieve entirely within the runtime, or those functions that have been exposed by the Base Class Library - which itself uses COM Interop and P/Invoke!

The .NET Framework Library itself isn't "pure .NET" as it takes every opportunity to take full advantage of the underlying platform primitives. Moreover, the concept of .NET Purity is rendered specious in this new light. The .NET Framework is the best way to create business components on the Windows Platform, but any applications along with the .NET Framework are only lifted as high as the underlying Windows OS services.

"Hybrid" Solutions provide Real Solutions
Many large existing applications are written in Visual C++ and COM. They are written "close to the metal" to take full advantage of native Windows multi-threading and fine-grained memory management. However, new business components may also be written in a .NET language such as C# or VB.NET. The existing system then hosts the .NET Common Language Runtime within its process space and Interops. The interface is usually COM interop but only incurs minimal overhead of between 10 and 40 processor instructions per in-proc call.

.NET Components hosted with in the legacy applicaiton can take advantage of that application's existing services. Lower level developer features such as memory management, object lifetime and object orientation are provided by the CLR, while higher level vertical-specific business functionality is exposed via the legacy application.

This "hybrid" can provide a best-of-breed solution on the Windows Platform exploiting both the highly performant low-level APIs via C++ and the highly componentized and object oriented features of the .NET Framework. These solutions can work very successfully while companies migrate their existing code bases to the .NET Framework.

More Stories By Scott Hanselman

Scott Hanselman will be starting a new job at Microsoft as a senior program manager in the developer division. His blog is at http://www.hanselman.com.

Comments (4) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
Tim Huckaby 07/25/03 07:07:00 PM EDT

Your comments on system.directory are interesting. Adsi is simply a com wrapper, so technically it?s a ?wrapped wrapper? of the native ldap api which, of course, is c++ only. Being that said, the directory entry class you are referring to is a ?wrapped, wrapped wrapper?. Ultimately, the big disappointment of the .net framework 1.1 and the hope for 2.0 is more native framework classes.

Derek Ferguson 07/18/03 10:12:00 AM EDT

I would never suggest that COM Interop should be gotten rid of or is in any way, shape, or form "evil." However, as a developer who spends more than 90% of my coding time working with the System.DirectoryServices and System.Management namespaces, let me tell you -- MS could have save developers a lot of gried by having written some managed protocol handlers here, rather than just wrapping up the old, troubled API's.

As one example of this, the DirectoryEntry class in System.DirectoryServices allows you to pass a username and password to its constructor. However, when you use the WinNT ADSI provider, these parameters are sometimes ignored. Why is this? Because of a limitation in the existing API's that were wrapped!

Similar problems abound in the System.Management namespace -- where I recently managed to prove that Impersonation (a native API) interacts differently with EnablePrivilieges (a wrapped API) under ASP.NET than it does under the Console. In working through this with MS, I have been passed around to 10 different people in their Support infrastructure. Why? Because the old, obscure API's that have been wrapped are a "dark art" that are only known by a few individuals within the Redmond infrastructure.

Once again: it would've been better to have recreated the whole thing in C#.

Dean Guida 07/25/03 04:00:00 PM EDT

There is a lot to be said for purity for purity's sake. I have never subscribed to this type of thinking. At the end of the day we all want to build dependable software that solves the business problem at hand. Everything should always be taking in context of a solution with a sense of practicality. I think most of the software development community has this maturity.

Patrick Hynds 07/17/03 10:16:00 PM EDT

I think this article is right on, but felt that we should confront the issue of why this kind of rebuttal is needed (and it is needed). We find people who are earnest only in so far as they can justify their existence. Therefore they brand something heresy as soon as they abandon the practice themselves. Lets assume that COM interop was a horrible waste of resource, it still wouldn't justify discarding a tool and the wealth of existing functionality the last generation always holds in such a wholesale manner. I have seen people in ASP circles a while back declare that "Session State is bad". Like hybrid applications Session State in ASP is a tool, use it, don't use it, but if you happen to need a hammer it doesn't make the saw evil.

@ThingsExpo Stories
"Once customers get a year into their IoT deployments, they start to realize that they may have been shortsighted in the ways they built out their deployment and the key thing I see a lot of people looking at is - how can I take equipment data, pull it back in an IoT solution and show it in a dashboard," stated Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Complete Internet of Things (IoT) embedded device security is not just about the device but involves the entire product’s identity, data and control integrity, and services traversing the cloud. A device can no longer be looked at as an island; it is a part of a system. In fact, given the cross-domain interactions enabled by IoT it could be a part of many systems. Also, depending on where the device is deployed, for example, in the office building versus a factory floor or oil field, security ha...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
Everyone knows that truly innovative companies learn as they go along, pushing boundaries in response to market changes and demands. What's more of a mystery is how to balance innovation on a fresh platform built from scratch with the legacy tech stack, product suite and customers that continue to serve as the business' foundation. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, discussed why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and mor...
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
Unsecured IoT devices were used to launch crippling DDOS attacks in October 2016, targeting services such as Twitter, Spotify, and GitHub. Subsequent testimony to Congress about potential attacks on office buildings, schools, and hospitals raised the possibility for the IoT to harm and even kill people. What should be done? Does the government need to intervene? This panel at @ThingExpo New York brings together leading IoT and security experts to discuss this very serious topic.
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
"Dice has been around for the last 20 years. We have been helping tech professionals find new jobs and career opportunities," explained Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
"ReadyTalk is an audio and web video conferencing provider. We've really come to embrace WebRTC as the platform for our future of technology," explained Dan Cunningham, CTO of ReadyTalk, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at WebRTC Summit at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
"At ROHA we develop an app called Catcha. It was developed after we spent a year meeting with, talking to, interacting with senior citizens watching them use their smartphones and talking to them about how they use their smartphones so we could get to know their smartphone behavior," explained Dave Woods, Chief Innovation Officer at ROHA, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
The many IoT deployments around the world are busy integrating smart devices and sensors into their enterprise IT infrastructures. Yet all of this technology – and there are an amazing number of choices – is of no use without the software to gather, communicate, and analyze the new data flows. Without software, there is no IT. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation; Alan Williamson, Principal...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, discussed recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model for ...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...