Welcome!

Microsoft Cloud Authors: Nick Basinger, Kevin Benedict, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Lori MacVittie

Related Topics: Machine Learning , Java IoT, Adobe Flex, Agile Computing

Machine Learning : Article

Rich Internet Applications - State of the Union

What's your technology choice for implementing RIA?

[This prescient article first appeared on SYS-CON.com nearly 12 months ago.]

We are entering an era of Rich Internet Applications (RIA),  and many enterprise development managers are facing the dilemma - which way to go - remain with  tried and true Java or .Net technologies or less known yet AJAX, Flex, OpenLaszlo or a number of other vendors.  This article is an attempt to give a brief overview of what's out there on the RIA market.

Historically there have been major shifts in the software industry. We moved from mainframes with dumb terminals to client/server. Users gained in convenience and productivity, and mainframe systems were patronizingly labeled as legacy. With the availability of the World Wide Web industry visionaries turned the tables: vendors and corporate IT had been eager to get rid of the complexity of client/server version management and technologists were sold on multi-tier computing. This time client/server was called legacy. Excited with server multi-threading, messaging, persistence, and similar toys, we pretend not to think that, at the end of the day, we'd have to trade user experience and productivity for the transparency of application deployment. And to make us feel better, we proudly called the new breed of applications "thin client."

Now we are entering an era of RIA, which restores the power of desktop applications...inside downloadable Web page. RIAs run in a virtual machine (i.e., Adobe Flash Player or Java VM) and have the potential of becoming a full-featured desktop application soon. As opposed to just simply displaying Web pages delivered from some server machine, RIA really run on the client. Many of the data manipulation tasks (sorting, grouping, and filtering) are done locally like in the old client/server days. In three or four years most newly developed projects will include RIA technologies.
A rich Internet application combines the benefits of using the Web as a low-cost deployment model with a rich user experience that's at least as good as today's desktop applications. And, since RIAs don't require that the entire page be refreshed to update their data, the response time is much faster and the network load much lower. Think of a globally available  client/server application.

Let's illustrate the difference between "legacy" Web and RIA with a shopping cart example. Non-RIA Web applications are page-based. Since HTTP is a stateless protocol, when the user moves from one page to another, a Web browser doesn't "remember" the user's actions on the previous page. As a common treatment of this "amnesia," a user state is stored on the server side in the form of the HTTP session.
Consider the case of an online shopping session. It can go as follows:

1. The user initiates a search for an item on Web page #1.
2. The server processes this request and returns page #2 that may (or may not) contain the required item.
3. The user adds an item to a shopping cart that takes yet another trip to the server to create the shopping cart and store it on the server side. Then the server responds with page #3 so the user can either continue shopping (repeating the first three steps) or proceed to the checkout - page #4.
At the checkout the server retrieves selected items from the session object and sends page #5 to the user for shipping info. The data entered travels back to the server for storage, and the client gets back page #6 for billing information. After that page #7 will confirm the order and only then goes to the order completion page.

This simplest of online purchases consisted of seven roundtrips to the server. In striking difference to desktop applications, a few-seconds-per-page refresh is considered fast(!) for a typical Web application, and the commonly acceptable delay is up to eight seconds. Is the user motivated enough to complete the purchase? Think again, because your system gave him a chance to reconsider seven times in a row. Now assume that the network and/or server are slow...your potential customer went elsewhere.

Rich Internet applications eliminate the roundtrips and substantially improve system performance by doing a lot more of the processing on the client than a thin client Web application. Besides, RIAs are stateful: they accumulate the information right on the client! To put it simply, RIA isn't a set of pages controlled by the server; they are actual applications running on the client's computer and communicating with servers primarily to process and exchange data.

 Both consumer-facing and enterprise applications benefit from being RIAs. It's a well-known fact that e-commerce Web sites such as online ticket reservation systems and online retailers are losing revenues because users abandon shopping carts on non-responsive Web sites during the checkout process. Such Web sites result in lots of calls to the call center, a major operational expense in and of itself. The performance of any system operated by employees is critical to company productivity and RIAs provide a performance boost over HTML applications, while reducing operating and infrastructure costs.
  
RIA Platforms: The Major Choices

There's more than one way to create RIAs that run in the client's browser with the help of some kind of client engine. These are the most popular products or technologies:

  • A Java programmer can create Java applets. As mentioned, this solution has been available since 1995.
  • Using Adobe Flex you can create an ActionScript application for the ubiquitous Flash Player, a high-performance multimedia virtual machine that runs bytecode files in the SWF format (pronounced swif). The player's JIT compiler converts the SWF bytecode to native machine code for fast performance. The later facility is specific to Flex 2, available since 2006. Although early versions of Flex were out in 2004, they didn't support just-in-time compilation.
  • Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) was released as part of .NET 3.0 in November of 2006 and can be used to create both Internet and desktop applications (it also has the Everywhere version  - WPF/E).
  • AJAX, a k a DHTML, born circa 1998. This solution was recently boosted with XMLHttpRequest API support for all major browsers. AJAX served as a wake-up call for the user and developer communities. It is often the first step on the migration path from the legacy Web to the world of RIA despite being seriously handicapped by having to support browser incompatibilities and a poor programming model.

More Stories By Yakov Fain

Yakov Fain is a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay. He wrote a thousand blogs (http://yakovfain.com) and several books about software development. Yakov authored and co-authored such books as "Angular 2 Development with TypeScript", "Java 24-Hour Trainer", and "Enterprise Web Development". His Twitter tag is @yfain

Comments (4)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


IoT & Smart Cities Stories
If a machine can invent, does this mean the end of the patent system as we know it? The patent system, both in the US and Europe, allows companies to protect their inventions and helps foster innovation. However, Artificial Intelligence (AI) could be set to disrupt the patent system as we know it. This talk will examine how AI may change the patent landscape in the years to come. Furthermore, ways in which companies can best protect their AI related inventions will be examined from both a US and...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities - ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups.
Dynatrace is an application performance management software company with products for the information technology departments and digital business owners of medium and large businesses. Building the Future of Monitoring with Artificial Intelligence. Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more busine...
Chris Matthieu is the President & CEO of Computes, inc. He brings 30 years of experience in development and launches of disruptive technologies to create new market opportunities as well as enhance enterprise product portfolios with emerging technologies. His most recent venture was Octoblu, a cross-protocol Internet of Things (IoT) mesh network platform, acquired by Citrix. Prior to co-founding Octoblu, Chris was founder of Nodester, an open-source Node.JS PaaS which was acquired by AppFog and ...
The deluge of IoT sensor data collected from connected devices and the powerful AI required to make that data actionable are giving rise to a hybrid ecosystem in which cloud, on-prem and edge processes become interweaved. Attendees will learn how emerging composable infrastructure solutions deliver the adaptive architecture needed to manage this new data reality. Machine learning algorithms can better anticipate data storms and automate resources to support surges, including fully scalable GPU-c...
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
Bill Schmarzo, author of "Big Data: Understanding How Data Powers Big Business" and "Big Data MBA: Driving Business Strategies with Data Science," is responsible for setting the strategy and defining the Big Data service offerings and capabilities for EMC Global Services Big Data Practice. As the CTO for the Big Data Practice, he is responsible for working with organizations to help them identify where and how to start their big data journeys. He's written several white papers, is an avid blogge...
The standardization of container runtimes and images has sparked the creation of an almost overwhelming number of new open source projects that build on and otherwise work with these specifications. Of course, there's Kubernetes, which orchestrates and manages collections of containers. It was one of the first and best-known examples of projects that make containers truly useful for production use. However, more recently, the container ecosystem has truly exploded. A service mesh like Istio addr...
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.
Whenever a new technology hits the high points of hype, everyone starts talking about it like it will solve all their business problems. Blockchain is one of those technologies. According to Gartner's latest report on the hype cycle of emerging technologies, blockchain has just passed the peak of their hype cycle curve. If you read the news articles about it, one would think it has taken over the technology world. No disruptive technology is without its challenges and potential impediments t...