Click here to close now.


.NET Authors: Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez, Elizabeth White, Greg O'Connor, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: PowerBuilder, .NET

PowerBuilder: Article

Elegant Programming: Managing Functions | Part 3

Keep functions simple

Functions Must Be Short
Create a separate function for each logical sub-task, i.e., divide one long program into a number of short subprograms. The idea is named "Separation of concerns." Do that not only if the code will be re-used (i.e., called from more than one place) but even if it will only be called once. It's not a problem to have a lot of functions belonging to one task or business flow, even tens - a developer can always bring into focus only one of them. On the other hand, it's very difficult to understand how one intricate toilet-paper-long script works. Adherence to this rule will produce simple code even if the whole system is extremely complex, like software for a space ship or for brain surgy. The following tips will help you write code in a simple manner:

  • Ideally a function should be no longer than one screen (not including the header comments). Two screens are still acceptable, but three screens already bring up the issue of incorrect functions organization unless the function performs a long "black work" that cannot (or should not) be broken into pieces, for example, processing a big number of fields gotten from an external service, when each field is processed in a few lines.
  • The next acceptable advice was found by me in a programming book: "functions should contain up to approximately 100 lines of code not including comments."

Pay attention: the problem of functions that are too long usually goes together with the already discussed problem of extra indentation in Part 2.

Let's read what Jorn Olmheim wrote in the book 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know:

There is one quote, from Plato, that I think is particularly good for all software developers to know and keep close to their hearts:

"Beauty of style and harmony and grace and good rhythm depends on simplicity."

In one sentence, this sums up the values that we as software developers should aspire to. There are a number of things we strive for in our code:

  • Readability
  • Maintainability
  • Speed of development
  • The elusive quality of beauty

Plato is telling us that the enabling factor for all of these qualities is simplicity.

I have found that code that resonates with me, and that I consider beautiful, has a number of properties in common. Chief among these is simplicity. I find that no matter how complex the total application or system is, the individual parts have to be kept simple: simple objects with a single responsibility containing similarly simple, focused methods with descriptive names.

The bottom line is that beautiful code is simple code. Each individual part is kept simple with simple responsibilities and simple relationships with the other parts of the system. This is the way we can keep our systems maintainable over time, with clean, simple, testable code, ensuring a high speed of development throughout the lifetime of the system.

Beauty is born of and found in simplicity.

Steve McConnell writes in Code Complete:

A large percentage of routines in object-oriented programs will be accessor routines, which will be very short. From time to time, a complex algorithm will lead to a longer routine, and in those circumstances, the routine should be allowed to grow organically up to 100-200 lines.

Let issues such as the routine's cohesion, depth of nesting, number of variables, number of decision points, number of comments needed to explain the routine, and other complexity-related considerations dictate the length of the routine rather than imposing a length restriction per se.

That said, if you want to write routines longer than about 200 lines, be careful. None of the studies that reported decreased cost, decreased error rates, or both with larger routines distinguished among sizes larger than 200 lines, and you're bound to run into an upper limit of understandability as you pass 200 lines of code.

And now ideas from different developers, found on the Internet:

"When reading code for a single function, you should be able to remember (mostly) what it is doing from beginning to the end. If you get partway through a function and start thinking "what was this function supposed to be doing again?" then that's a sure sign that it's too long..."


"Usually if it can't fit on my screen, it's a candidate for refactoring. But, screen size does vary, so I usually look for under 25-30 lines."


"IMO you should worry about keeping your methods short and having them do one "thing" equally. I have seen a lot of cases where a method does "one" thing that requires extremely verbose code - generating an XML document, for example, and it's not an excuse for letting the method grow extremely long."


" should make functions as small as you can make them, as long as they remain discrete sensible operations in your domain. If you break a function ab() up into a() and b() and it would NEVER make sense to call a() without immediately calling b() afterwards, you haven't gained much. Perhaps it's easier to test or refactor, you might argue, but if it really never makes sense to call a() without b(), then the more valuable test is a() followed by b(). Make them as simple and short as they can be, but no simpler!"


"As a rule of thumb, I'd say that any method that does not fit on your screen is in dire need of refactoring (you should be able to grasp what a method is doing without having to scroll. Remember that you spend much more time reading code than writing it). ~20 lines is a reasonable maximum, though. Aside from method length, you should watch out for cyclomatic complexity i.e. the number of different paths that can be followed inside the method. Reducing cyclomatic complexity is as important as reducing method length (because a high CC reveals a method that is difficult to test, debug and understand)."


"During my first years of study, we had to write methods/functions with no more than 25 lines (and 80 columns max for each line). Nowadays I'm free to code the way I want but I think being forced to code that way was a good thing ... By writing small methods/functions, you more easily divide your code into reusable components, it's easier to test, and it's easier to maintain."


"I often end up writing methods with 10 - 30 lines. Sometimes I find longer methods suitable, when it's easier to read/test/maintain."


"My problem with big functions is that I want to hold everything that's happening in the code, in my head all at once. That's really the key. It also means that we're talking about a moving target. Because the goal is usability, the one screen rule really does make sense even though you can point to seeming flaws like varying screen resolutions. If you can see it all at once without paging around the editor, you are very much more likely to handle it all as a block.

What if you're working on a team? I suppose the best thing for the team would be to determine the lowest common denominator and target that size. If you have someone with a short attention-span or an IDE set up displaying around 20 lines, that's probably a good target. Another team might be good with 50.

And yeah, whatever your target is, sometimes you'll go over. 40 lines instead of 25 when the function can't really be broken up reasonably is fine here and there. You and your partners will deal with it. But the 3K line single-function VB6 modules that exist in some of my employer's legacy suites are insane!"


"I prefer to try to keep everything in a function on the same level of abstraction and as short as possibly. Programming is all about managing complexity and short one purpose functions make it easier to do that."

Keep Functions Simple, Part 2
The problem of mixed levels of abstraction

Don't mix different levels of abstraction in one function. The main function should call well-named sub-functions that call sub-sub-functions (and so on, and so on...), so a developer can easily "travel" up and down between different levels of abstraction (each time concentrating only on the current one) through hierarchies of any depth.

Kent Beck wrote in his book Smalltalk Best Practice Patterns: "Divide your program into methods that perform one identifiable task. Keep all of the operations in a method at the same level of abstraction. This will naturally result in programs with many small methods, each a few lines long."

Code Blocks Must Be Short
Don't allow code blocks to overgrow. A code block is a fragment, placed between opening and closing operators. These operators are:

  • Code branching operators (like IF ... ELSE ... END IF).
  • Looping operators (FOR ... NEXT, LOOP ... END LOOP, DO ... WHILE etc.)

The great idea is to keep the opening and closing operators on one screen. If you see that it's impossible, then think about extracting the block into a new function. It can also decrease the indenting; for example, the fragment:

if [condition] then
[very long code fragment with its own indents]
end if
will be looking in the new function as
if not [condition] then return
[very long code fragment with its own indents]

But that is the subject of the next paragraph:

Code After Validations
If a large code fragment is executed after a few validations (and is placed inside a few if-s), take them all (the fragment and the validations) into a new function and exit that function just after one of the validations has failed. It will not only save your code from extra indenting but also convey the following information: the whole algorithm (not its part) is executed after all the preliminary validations have been passed successfully. For example, if the first line in a function is "if not <condition> then return" and the code is longer than one screen, the function readers immediately know that all the executed stuff is done only if the condition is satisfied, while if there is an "if" block like "if <condition> then <many-screens-code-fragment> end if" then the function readers are forced to scroll down to see if there is any code after the "end if" (executed always). See how you can convert code from monstrous to elegant:

*** BAD code: ***

if this.uf_data_ok_1() then
if this.uf_data_ok_2() then
if this.uf_data_ok_3() then
[code fragment with its own indents]
end if
end if
end if

*** GOOD code (taken into a new function): ***

if not this.uf_data_ok_1() then return
if not this.uf_data_ok_2() then return
if not this.uf_data_ok_3() then return

Here you can ask: and what about the "single point of exit" rule? I don't want to discuss it here, but this idea produces more problems than it solves. I agree with Dijkstra who was strongly opposed to the concept of a single point of exit (it can simplify debugging in particular circumstances, but why do I have to suffer from working everyday with more complicated code only for the sake of simplifying possible debugging which may never happen?).

If a code fragment is not very long after many validations and you don't want to extract it into a special function, use the exceptions mechanism: put the whole fragment between try and catch, throwing an exception on failure of any of the sub-validations and process it locally (without propagating outwards). If you don't want to use exceptions for any reason, then use one of the following tricks: the "flag method" or the "fake loop method" but not the "multi-indents method".

*** GOOD code ("flag method"): ***

boolean lb_ok

lb_ok = this.uf_data_ok_1()

if lb_ok then
lb_ok = this.uf_data_ok_2()
end if

if lb_ok then
lb_ok = this.uf_data_ok_3()
end if

if lb_ok then
[code fragment with its own indenting levels]
end if

*** Another GOOD code ("fake loop method"): ***

boolean lb_ok

do while true
lb_ok = false
if not this.uf_data_ok_1() then break
if not this.uf_data_ok_() then break
if not this.uf_data_ok_3() then break
lb_ok = true

if lb_ok then
[code fragment with its own indenting levels]
end if

As you can see, the fake loop is an eternal loop with an unconditional break at the end of the first iteration, so the second iteration will never happen. This solution is looking strange (a loop construction that never loops), but it works.

Return Policy
Functions must return values to the calling script only when it makes sense. A function is allowed to return a value using a return statement only if at least one of the following conditions is true:

  • The main purpose of the function is to obtain the value, and there is only one value to return.
  • The main purpose of the function is to perform some action, but the returned value is important for the calling script (not for error processing - there are exceptions for that), and there is only one value to return, for example, the main purpose of uf_retrieve is to retrieve data from the database, but, in addition, it returns the number of retrieved rows so the calling script is more efficient because it doesn't need to call RowCount().

A function must not return a value using a return statement (i.e., "(none)" must be selected as the returned type in the function's signature) if at least one of the following conditions is true:

  • The function's purpose is to perform some action, and there is nothing useful to return to the calling script.
  • The function (of any purpose) must return more than one value - they all (!!!) are returned using "ref" arguments. It's considered a very bad programming style if both the mechanisms are used: return statement and by-reference arguments!

You can ask: what is the problem with having a meaningless, but harmless return 1 at the bottom of the script? Nothing catastrophic, but the return value is a part of the function's contract with the outer world, and each detail of that contract is important and must make sense. Looking at the function's interface, developers will make conclusions about its functionality, so if a value is returned, that has a reason and the returned value should somehow be processed in the calling script... You know, it's like adding to a function of one extra argument of type int, which is not used inside, and always passing 1 through it. That argument will also be harmless and not catastrophic, but unnecessary and foolish in the same way as the discussed "return 1".

Use REF Keyword
When you pass actual arguments to a function by reference, always add "ref". In fact, this short keyword is playing the role of a comment:

dw_main.GetChild("status", ref ldwc_status)

It really helps to understand scripts, especially when calling functions have multiple arguments in both the logical directions, "in" and "out". It was a bad solution for PB creators to make ref an optional keyword; let's make it required of our own free will.

No Global Variables and Functions
Never create global variables and functions! They are an atavism that has survived from the early days of programming. Modern technologies (like Java and .NET) don't have these obsolete features at all. PB has them only for backward compatibility, so don't create new ones (there is only one exception - global functions, used in DW expressions if other solutions are more problematic).

All developers, using the object-oriented approach, know about encapsulation, so usually there are no questions about global variables - they are an "obvious evil." But what's so bad about global functions? If you have a small, simple function, making it a public function of an NVO (instead of a global function) seems to provide no advantage at first glance, but...

  • If you will want to extract a part of the function's code into a new function (according to the principle of creation a subprogram for each logical task or simply because the script has become too long), it will be impossible without creating another global function. And if you need 20 such functions in the future? You have two bad choices: to create an additional global function or not to create it (in the last case the script will be left as a long, unreadable and hardy managed buggers muddle). But if you have created an NVO as a container for your function (which is declared "public"), then you can add to that NVO any number of additional "service" functions ("private" if they are not intended to be called from outside).
  • If you need to create a number of different functions, related to a same task/flow, putting them in one NVO will not only decrease the quantity of objects in the PBL, but will also signal that they are somehow related to each other. It's definitely better than a PBL overloaded with a crazy mix of tens or even hundreds of global functions belonging to different logical units.

The programmed process may require you to store data (for example, between calls to the function, or to cache data, retrieved once, for multi-times use by different consumers over the application). If a global function is used, your bad choices are global vars and using another NVO (in the last case you will have related stuff in different locations). But if you have created the function in an NVO, then there are no problems - declare instance variables (as well as constants for safer and more elegant code).

Refactor Identical Code
Merge functions with duplicating functionality into one generic function. If such a function appears in classes inherited from the same ancestor, create the generic function in the ancestor and call it from the descendants. If the classes are not inherited from one ancestor, then create the generic function in a third class (even if you have to create that class for only one function). If you find yourself thinking whether to duplicate code using copy-paste (10 minutes of work) or take it to a third place (two hours including testing) - stop thinking immediately. Never think about that, even in last days of your contract - simply take the code to a third place and call it from where needed. If you are still in doubt about spending your time (which really belongs to the company), ask your manager, but it's better to do the work well and after that to explain to the manager why it has taken longer time. If the manager understands what quality programming is then your effort will be appreciated.

Refactor Similar Code
Merge functions with similar functionality into one generic function. Different parts of the application must supply specific (uncommon) data to a generic (universal) algorithm implemented only once.

If the functions, being taken by you into a third place to prevent duplication, are very similar but not exactly identical, you need to exploit your brain a little bit more. Do the following:

  • Merge the original scripts as described in "Refactor identical code" removing code duplication in the maximum way you can.
  • Supply the different stuff (unique for each original function) from the application areas the original functions appeared in before.

For example, we have two original functions in different classes that are like these (fragments 1 and 2 of the second object are exactly as fragments 1 and 2 accordingly of the first class, but the DataObjects are different):

*** BAD code: ***

uf_some_function() of the first class:
[fragment 1]
is_entity = "Car"
[fragment 2]
uf_some_function() of the second class:
[fragment 1] // exactly like [fragment 1] in the first class
is_entity = "Bike" // oops, it's different from the same place in the first class...
[fragment 2] // exactly like [fragment 2] in the first class

*** GOOD code: ***

uf_some_function() moved into the ancestor class:
[fragment 1]
is_entity = this.uf_get_entity()
[fragment 2]

We use the function uf_get_entity to overcome the problem of difference between two the discussed functions. uf_get_entity is created in the ancestor class (as a placeholder, returning NULL or empty string) and implemented in the descendants to supply specific entities descriptions: in the first descendant the function should be coded as "return "Car"", in the second one - as "return "Bike"".

If the function is taken into a third class (that doesn't belong to the inheritance hierarchy) then the specific (different) data can be supplied as argument(s) of the new merged function, so the fragment "is_entity = this.uf_get_entity()" will become "is_entity = as_entity".

Finally, there is one more method to achieving the goal - we can populate is_entity while initializing the instance (for example, in its constructor), but this approach is not always applicable.

Of course, it's better to spend some time before development and think about how to organize classes instead of thoughtless straightforward coding that forces the Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V keys to work hard.

Forget the Keyword "DYNAMIC"
Don't call functions and events dynamically. Instead, cast to the needed data type (which has the function/event) and call it statically. Instead of:

int li_wheels_qty
Window lw_transport

lw_transport = uf_get_transport_window()
li_wheels_qty = lw_transport.dynamic wf_get_wheels_qty()


int li_wheels_qty
string ls_win_name
Window lw_transport
w_car lw_car
w_bike lw_bike
w_plane lw_plane

lw_transport = uf_get_transport_window()
ls_win_name = lw_transport.ClassName()
choose case ls_win_name
case "w_car"
lw_car = lw_transport
li_wheels_qty = lw_car.wf_get_wheels_qty()
case "w_bike"
lw_bike = lw_transport
li_wheels_qty = lw_bike.wf_get_wheels_qty()
case "w_plane"
lw_plane = lw_transport
li_wheels_qty = lw_plane.wf_get_wheels_qty()
case else
f_throw(PopulateError(0, "Unexpected window " + ls_win_name)
end choose

That approach requires more lines of code, but it has the following advantages:

  • Clarity to code readers. Developers immediately see the whole picture (all the possible situations)  and oppositely, dynamic calls hide the picture and require guessing or an annoying investigation (if that information is needed).
  • Type-safety. If one day uf_get_transport_window() will return w_boat, there will be a readable message generated (saying what is the problem and where it occurred) instead of an application failure. Possibly, the developer will decide to extend the "choose case" construction with case "w_boat" (which will not call uf_get_transport_window()).

More Stories By Michael Zuskin

Michael Zuskin is a certified software professional with sophisticated programming skills and experience in Enterprise Software Development.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Enterprise IoT is an exciting and chaotic space with a lot of potential to transform how the enterprise resources are managed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Hari Srinivasan, Sr Product Manager at Cisco, will describe the challenges in enabling mass adoption of IoT, and share perspectives and insights on architectures/standards/protocols that are necessary to build a healthy ecosystem and lay the foundation to for a wide variety of exciting IoT use cases in the years to come.
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud, a provider of enterprise resource planning software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. B2cloud develops the software you need. They have the ideal tools to help you work with your clients. B2Cloud’s main solutions include AGIS – ERP, CLOHC, AGIS – Invoice, and IZUM
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY., and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides private all-in-one social intranets allowing workers to securely collaborate from anywhere in the world and from any device. Social, mobile, and easy to use. MangoApps has been named a "Market Leader" by Ovum Research and a "Cool Vendor" by Gartner...
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on Twitter at @MicroservicesE
There is no doubt that Big Data is here and getting bigger every day. Building a Big Data infrastructure today is no easy task. There are an enormous number of choices for database engines and technologies. To make things even more challenging, requirements are getting more sophisticated, and the standard paradigm of supporting historical analytics queries is often just one facet of what is needed. As Big Data growth continues, organizations are demanding real-time access to data, allowing immediate and actionable interpretation of events as they happen. Another aspect concerns how to deliver ...
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, and physical persons. In the IoT vision, every new "thing" - sensor, actuator, data source, data con...
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
The Internet of Things is not new. Historically, smart businesses have used its basic concept of leveraging data to drive better decision making and have capitalized on those insights to realize additional revenue opportunities. So, what has changed to make the Internet of Things one of the hottest topics in tech? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Gray, Director, Embedded and Internet of Things, discussed the underlying factors that are driving the economics of intelligent systems. Discover how hardware commoditization, the ubiquitous nature of connectivity, and the emergence of Big Data a...
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
As we approach the next @ThingsExpo, to be held June 9-11 at the Javits Center in New York, my thoughts naturally turn to the Internet of Things. The IoT is a leviathan—in the best possible sense of the term—that will sweep up most everything in the ocean of data and technology being created today and tomorrow. But rather than try to grasp all of its possible uses, for today I'm looking at “just” the Industrial Internet part. I just read a long paper co-authored by Tim Berners-Lee about the possibility of describing a “web science,” that is, discipline that combines the study involved ...
Chuck Piluso will present a study of cloud adoption trends and the power and flexibility of IBM Power and Pureflex cloud solutions. Speaker Bio: Prior to Data Storage Corporation (DSC), Mr. Piluso founded North American Telecommunication Corporation, a facilities-based Competitive Local Exchange Carrier licensed by the Public Service Commission in 10 states, serving as the company's chairman and president from 1997 to 2000. Between 1990 and 1997, Mr. Piluso served as chairman & founder of International Telecommunications Corporation, a facilities-based international carrier licensed by t...
There are lots of challenges in IoT around secure, scalable and business friendly infrastructure for enterprises. For large corporations, IoT implementations are one of the top priorities of the decade. All industries are seeing a competitive need to sustain by investing in IoT initiatives. The value addition comes from improved customer service, innovative product and additional revenue streams. The data from these IP-connected devices can be leveraged for a variety of business applications as well as responsive action controls. The various architectural building blocks of an IoT ...
The WebRTC Summit 2015 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.
Recent technology advances in miniaturization has positioned the wearables as the pinnacle of technology convergence with the human body. We inquire if wearables are mere standard miniaturized devices extended with the connectivity and present our views on considerations like design, applications, performance, efficiency, interoperability, usage scenarios, human device interaction and consequent trade-offs enabling wearables to impart optimal value.
In this session we look at creating interactive communications via the web by adding messaging, file transfer, and group communication (group chat and audio/video conferencing) into the web experience. We will also discuss potential applications of this technology in areas including B2B, B2C, P2P, and gaming. Peter is Technical Director at Acision. He graduated from The University of Edinburgh in 2000 with a BSc (Hons) in Computer Science. After graduation Peter worked on a PSTN switch developing signalling stacks for SS7, ISDN and similar protocols and creating advanced routing and serv...
The Internet of Things Maturity Model (IoTMM) is a qualitative method to gauge the growth and increasing impact of IoT capabilities in an IT environment from both a business and technology perspective. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan will first scan the IoT landscape and investigate the major challenges and barriers. The key areas of consideration are identified to get started with IoT journey. He will then pinpoint the need of a tool for effective IoT adoption and implementation, which leads to IoTMM in which five maturity levels are defined: Advanced, Dynamic, Optimized, Primitive,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that AIC, a leading provider of OEM/ODM server and storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. AIC is a leading provider of both standard OTS, off-the-shelf, and OEM/ODM server and storage solutions. With expert in-house design capabilities, validation, manufacturing and production, AIC's broad selection of products are highly flexible and are configurable to any form factor or custom configuration. AIC leads the industry with nearly 20 years of ...