|By Hovhannes Avoyan||
|December 19, 2012 10:27 PM EST||
In our previous article we discussed the hardware supported features of some of the high-end network adapters. Let’s take a look how you can use some of those settings to their best advantage. Remember that the correct settings depend on the network adapter, your workload, the resources of the host computer, and of course your performance goals.
Turning on network adapter offload features typically will benefit performance.However, sometimes the network adapter might not be powerful enough to handle the offload capabilities with high throughput. For example, enabling segmentation offload can reduce the maximum sustainable throughput on some network adapters because of limited hardware resources. However, if the reduced throughput is not expected to be a limitation, you should enable offload capabilities, even for those network adapters. Some network adapters require offload features to be independently enabled for send and receive paths.
RSS can improve web scalability and performance if you have fewer network adapters than logical processors in your server. When all the web traffic is going through the RSS-capable network adapters, incoming web requests from different connections can be simultaneously processed across different CPUs. Because of the logic in RSS and HTTP for load distribution, performance can be degraded if a non-RSS-capable network adapter accepts web traffic on a server that has one or more RSS-capable network adapters. It is recommended that you use RSS-capable network adapters or disable RSS from the Advanced Properties tab. To determine whether a network adapter is RSS-capable, view the RSS information on the Advanced Properties tab for the device.
RSS Profiles and RSS Queues
RSS Profiles are new in Windows Server 2012. The default profile is NUMA Static, which changes the default behavior from previous versions of Windows. We suggest reviewing the available profiles and understanding when they are beneficial. For example, you can use Task Manager to examine if your logical processors is underutilized for receive traffic, and try increasing the number of RSS queues from the default of 2 to the maximum that your network adapter supports. Changing the number of RSS queues is an option your network adapter may have as part of the driver.
For network adapters that allow manual configuration of resources, such as receive and send buffers, you should increase the allocated resources. Some network adapters set their receive buffers low to conserve allocated memory from the host. The low value results in dropped packets and decreased performance. Therefore, for receive-intensive scenarios, it is recommended to increase the receive buffer value to the maximum. If your adapter does not supports or exposes manual configuration, it most likely dynamically configures the resources, or it might be a fixed value that you can’t change.
To control interrupt moderation, some network adapters expose different interrupt moderation levels, buffer coalescing parameters (sometimes separately for send and receive buffers), or both. You should consider interrupt moderation for CPU-bound workloads, and consider the trade-off between the host CPU savings and latency versus the increased host CPU savings because of more interrupts and less latency. If the network adapter does not perform interrupt moderation, but it does expose buffer coalescing, increasing the number of coalesced buffers allows more buffers per send or receive, which improves performance.
Your network adapter has a number of options to optimize latency caused by the operating system. This latency is the time between the network driver processing an incoming packet and the sending it back, and is usually measured in microseconds. As a comparison, the transmission time for packets transmitted over long distances is usually expressed in milliseconds. This tuning will not reduce the time a packet spends in transit.
Some tuning suggestions for microsecond-sensitive networks include:
· Set the computer BIOS to High Performance, with C-states disabled. However, this is system and BIOS dependent. Some systems provide higher performance if the operating system controls power management. You can check and adjust your power management settings from the Control Panel or by using the powercfg command.
· Set the operating system power management profile to High Performance System. For this to work as expected, your system’s BIOS has to be set to enable operating system control of power management.
· Enable Static Offloads, for example, UDP Checksums, TCP Checksums, and Send Large Offload (LSO)
· Enable RSS if the traffic is multi-streamed, such as high-volume multicast receive
· Disable the Interrupt Moderation setting for network drivers that require the lowest possible latency. The tradeoff is that this can use more CPU time.
· Handle network adapter interrupts and DPCs on a core processor that shares CPU cache with the core that is being used by the program that is handling the packet. CPU affinity tuning can be used to direct a process to certain logical processors in conjunction with RSS configuration to accomplish this. Using the same core for the interrupt, DPC, and user mode thread exhibits worse performance as load increases because the ISR, DPC, and thread contend for the use of the core.
Many hardware systems use System Management Interrupts (SMI) for a variety of maintenance functions, including reporting of ECC memory errors, legacy USB compatibility, fan control, and BIOS controlled power management. The SMI is the highest priority interrupt on the system and places the CPU in a management mode, which preempts all other activity while it runs an interrupt service routine, typically contained in BIOS.
This behavior can result in latency spikes of 100 microseconds or more. If you need to achieve the lowest latency, look for a BIOS version from your hardware provider that reduces SMIs to the lowest degree possible, referred to as “low latency BIOS” or “SMI free BIOS.” It is not possible to eliminate SMI activity altogether because it is used to control some essential functions, such as fan control.
TCP Receive Window Auto-Tuning
Prior to Windows Server 2008, the network stack used a fixed-size receive-side window that limited the overall potential throughput for connections. One of the most significant changes to the TCP stack is TCP receive window auto-tuning. You can calculate the total throughput of a single connection when you use this fixed size default as:
Total achievable throughput in bytes = TCP window * (1 / connection latency)
As an example, the achievable throughput is only 51 Mbps on a 1 GB connection with 10ms latency. With auto-tuning, the receive-side window is adjustable, and it can grow to meet the demands of the sender. It is possible for a connection to achieve a full line rate of a 1 GB connection. Network usage requirements that might have been limited in the past by the total achievable throughput of TCP connections can now fully use the network.
Windows Filtering Platform
The Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) that was introduced in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 provides APIs to non-Microsoft independent software vendors (ISVs) to create packet processing filters. Examples include firewall and antivirus software. Be careful that a poorly written WFP filter can significantly decrease networking performance.
The following registry keywords from Windows Server 2003 are no longer supported, and they are ignored in Windows Server 2012, as well as Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2008:
· TcpWindowSize – HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
· NumTcbTablePartitions – HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
· MaxHashTableSize – HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
This section lists the counters that are relevant to managing network performance.
· IPv4, IPv6
- Datagrams Received/sec
- Datagrams Sent/sec
· TCPv4, TCPv6
- Segments Received/sec
- Segments Sent/sec
- Segments Retransmitted/sec
· Network Interface(*), Network Adapter(*)
- Bytes Received/sec
- Bytes Sent/sec
- Packets Received/sec
- Packets Sent/sec
- Output Queue Length
This counter is the length of the output packet queue (in packets). If this is longer than 2, delays occur. You should find the bottleneck and eliminate it if you can. Because NDIS queues the requests, this length should always be 0.
· Processor Information
- % Processor Time
- DPCs Queued/sec
This counter is an average rate at which DPCs were added to the logical processor’s DPC queue. Each logical processor has its own DPC queue. This counter measures the rate at which DPCs are added to the queue, not the number of DPCs in the queue. It displays the difference between the values that were observed in the last two samples, divided by the duration of the sample interval.
Potential Network Problems
· Network Interface(*), Network Adapter(*)
- Packets Received Discarded
- Packets Received Errors
- Packets Outbound Discarded
- Packets Outbound Errors
· WFPv4, WFPv6
- Packets Discarded/sec
· UDPv4, UDPv6
- Datagrams Received Errors
· TCPv4, TCPv6
- Connection Failures
- Connections Reset
· Network QoS Policy
- Packets dropped
- Packets dropped/sec
· Per Processor Network Interface Card Activity
- Low Resource Receive Indications/sec
- Low Resource Received Packets/sec
· Microsoft Winsock BSP
- Dropped Datagrams
- Dropped Datagrams/sec
- Rejected Connections
- Rejected Connections/sec
Receive Side Coalescing (RSC) performance
· Network Adapter(*)
- TCP Active RSC Connections
- TCP RSC Average Packet Size
- TCP RSC Coalesced Packets/sec
- TCP RSC Exceptions/sec
CenturyLink has announced that application server solutions from GENBAND are now available as part of CenturyLink’s Networx contracts. The General Services Administration (GSA)’s Networx program includes the largest telecommunications contract vehicles ever awarded by the federal government. CenturyLink recently secured an extension through spring 2020 of its offerings available to federal government agencies via GSA’s Networx Universal and Enterprise contracts. GENBAND’s EXPERiUS™ Application...
Jun. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 261
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jun. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 588
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Jun. 29, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 247
"We work in the area of Big Data analytics and Big Data analytics is a very crowded space - you have Hadoop, ETL, warehousing, visualization and there's a lot of effort trying to get these tools to talk to each other," explained Mukund Deshpande, head of the Analytics practice at Accelerite, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jun. 29, 2016 12:37 PM EDT Reads: 214
When people aren’t talking about VMs and containers, they’re talking about serverless architecture. Serverless is about no maintenance. It means you are not worried about low-level infrastructural and operational details. An event-driven serverless platform is a great use case for IoT. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Animesh Singh, an STSM and Lead for IBM Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, will detail how to build a distributed serverless, polyglot, microservices framework using open source tec...
Jun. 29, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 526
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Jun. 29, 2016 11:58 AM EDT Reads: 245
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 6thInternet of @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jun. 29, 2016 11:22 AM EDT Reads: 216
Apixio Inc. has raised $19.3 million in Series D venture capital funding led by SSM Partners with participation from First Analysis, Bain Capital Ventures and Apixio’s largest angel investor. Apixio will dedicate the proceeds toward advancing and scaling products powered by its cognitive computing platform, further enabling insights for optimal patient care. The Series D funding comes as Apixio experiences strong momentum and increasing demand for its HCC Profiler solution, which mines unstruc...
Jun. 29, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 476
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
Jun. 29, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 420
Presidio has received the 2015 EMC Partner Services Quality Award from EMC Corporation for achieving outstanding service excellence and customer satisfaction as measured by the EMC Partner Services Quality (PSQ) program. Presidio was also honored as the 2015 EMC Americas Marketing Excellence Partner of the Year and 2015 Mid-Market East Partner of the Year. The EMC PSQ program is a project-specific survey program designed for partners with Service Partner designations to solicit customer feedbac...
Jun. 29, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 549
IoT offers a value of almost $4 trillion to the manufacturing industry through platforms that can improve margins, optimize operations & drive high performance work teams. By using IoT technologies as a foundation, manufacturing customers are integrating worker safety with manufacturing systems, driving deep collaboration and utilizing analytics to exponentially increased per-unit margins. However, as Benoit Lheureux, the VP for Research at Gartner points out, “IoT project implementers often ...
Jun. 29, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 535
"delaPlex is a software development company. We do team-based outsourcing development," explained Mark Rivers, COO and Co-founder of delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jun. 29, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 466
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Jun. 29, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,274
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jun. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,235
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jun. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 905
The idea of comparing data in motion (at the sensor level) to data at rest (in a Big Data server warehouse) with predictive analytics in the cloud is very appealing to the industrial IoT sector. The problem Big Data vendors have, however, is access to that data in motion at the sensor location. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Scott Allen, CMO of FreeWave, discussed how as IoT is increasingly adopted by industrial markets, there is going to be an increased demand for sensor data from the outermos...
Jun. 29, 2016 09:25 AM EDT Reads: 218
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Jun. 29, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,426
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jun. 29, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 475
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jun. 29, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 940
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Jun. 29, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,196