Welcome!

Microsoft Cloud Authors: Pat Romanski, Jnan Dash, Andreas Grabner, Lori MacVittie, Jim Kaskade

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo, Microsoft Cloud

@CloudExpo: Book Excerpt

Cloud Computing, SOA and Windows Azure - Part 3

Windows Azure Roles

For a complete list of the co-authors and contributors, see the end of the article.

A cloud service in Windows Azure will typically have multiple concurrent instances. Each instance may be running all or a part of the service's codebase. As a developer, you control the number and type of roles that you want running your service.

Web Roles and Worker Roles
Windows Azure roles are comparable to standard Visual Studio projects, where each instance represents a separate project. These roles represent different types of applications that are natively supported by Windows Azure. There are two types of roles that you can use to host services with Windows Azure:

  • Web roles
  • Worker roles

Web roles provide support for HTTP and HTTPS through public endpoints and are hosted in IIS. They are most comparable to regular ASP.NET projects, except for differences in their configuration files and the assemblies they reference.

Worker roles can also expose external, publicly facing TCP/IP endpoints on ports other than 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS); however, worker roles do not run in IIS. Worker roles are applications comparable to Windows services and are suitable for background ­processing.

Virtual Machines
Underneath the Windows Azure platform, in an area that you and your service logic have no control over, each role is given its own virtual machine or VM. Each VM is created when you deploy your service or service-oriented solution to the cloud. All of these VMs are managed by a modified hypervisor and hosted in one of Microsoft's global data centers.

Each VM can vary in size, which pertains to the number of CPU cores and memory. This is something that you control. So far, four pre-defined VM sizes are provided:

  • Small - 1.7ghz single core, 2GB memory
  • Medium - 2x 1.7ghz cores, 4GB memory
  • Large - 4x 1.7ghz cores, 8GB memory
  • Extra large - 8x 1.7ghz cores, 16GB memory

Notice how each subsequent VM on this list is twice as big as the previous one. This simplifies VM allocation, creation, and management by the hypervisor.

Windows Azure abstracts away the management and maintenance tasks that come along with traditional on-premise service implementations. When you deploy your service into Windows Azure and the service's roles are spun up, copies of those roles are replicated automatically to handle failover (for example, if a VM were to crash because of hard drive failure). When a failure occurs, Windows Azure automatically replaces that "unreliable" role with one of the "shadow" roles that it originally created for your service. This type of failover is nothing new. On-premise service implementations have been leveraging it for some time using clustering and disaster recovery solutions. However, a common problem with these failover mechanisms is that they are often server-focused. This means that the entire server is failed over, not just a given service or service composition.

When you have multiple services hosted on a Web server that crashes, each hosted service experiences downtime between the current server crashing and the time it takes to bring up the backup server. Although this may not affect larger organizations with sophisticated infrastructure too much, it can impact smaller IT enterprises that may not have the capital to invest in setting up the proper type of failover infrastructure.

Also, suppose you discover in hindsight after performing the failover that it was some background worker process that caused the crash. This probably means that unless you can address it quick enough, your failover server is under the same threat of crashing.

Windows Azure addresses this issue by focusing on application and hosting roles. Each service or solution can have a Web frontend that runs in a Web role. Even though each role has its own "active" virtual machine (assuming we are working with single instances), Windows Azure creates copies of each role that are physically located on one or more servers. These servers may or may not be running in the same data center. These shadow VMs remain idle until they are needed.

Should the background process code crash the worker role and subsequently put the underlying virtual machine out of commission, Windows Azure detects this and automatically brings in one of the shadow worker roles. The faulty role is essentially discarded. If the worker role breaks again, then Windows Azure replaces it once more. All of this is happening without any downtime to the solution's Web role front end, or to any other services that may be running in the cloud.

Input Endpoints
Web roles used to be the only roles that could receive Internet traffic, but now worker roles can listen to any port specified in the service definition file. Internet traffic is received through the use of input endpoints. Input endpoints and their listening ports are declared in the service definition (*.csdef) file.

Keep in mind that when you specify the port for your worker role to listen on, Windows Azure isn't actually going to assign that port to the worker. In reality, the load balancer will open two ports-one for the Internet and the other for your worker role. Suppose you wanted to create an FTP worker role and in your service definition file you specify port 21. This tells the fabric load balancer to open port 21 on the Internet side, open pseudo-random port 33476 on the LAN side, and begin routing FTP traffic to the FTP worker role.

In order to find out which port to initialize for the randomly assigned internal port, use the RoleEnvironment.CurrentRoleInstance.InstanceEndpoints["FtpIn"].IPEndpoint object.

Inter-Role Communication
Inter-Role Communication (IRC) allows multiple roles to talk to each other by exposing internal endpoints. With an internal endpoint, you specify a name instead of a port number. The Windows Azure application fabric will assign a port for you automatically and will also manage the name-to-port mapping.

Here is an example of how you would specify an internal endpoint for IRC:

<ServiceDefinition xmlns=
"http://schemas.microsoft.com/ServiceHosting/2008/10/
ServiceDefinition" name="HelloWorld">
<WorkerRole name="WorkerRole1">
<Endpoints>
<InternalEndpoint name="NotifyWorker" protocol="tcp" />
</Endpoints>
</WorkerRole>
</ServiceDefinition>

Example 1
In this example, NotifyWorker is the name of the internal endpoint of a worker role named WorkerRole1. Next, you need to define the internal endpoint, as follows:

RoleInstanceEndpoint internalEndPoint =
RoleEnvironment.CurrentRoleInstance.
InstanceEndpoints["NotificationService"];
this.serviceHost.AddServiceEndpoint(
typeof(INameOfYourContract),
binding,
String.Format("net.tcp://{0}/NotifyWorker",
internalEndPoint.IPEndpoint));
WorkerRole.factory = new ChannelFactory<IClientNotification>(binding);

Example 2
You only need to specify the IP endpoint of the other worker role instances in order to communicate with them. For example, you could get a list of these endpoints with the following routine:

var current = RoleEnvironment.CurrentRoleInstance;
var endPoints = current.Role.Instances
.Where(instance => instance != current)
.Select(instance => instance.InstanceEndpoints["NotifyWorker"]);

Example 3
IRC only works for roles in a single application deployment. Therefore, if you have multiple applications deployed and would like to enable some type of cross-application role communication, IRC won't work. You will need to use queues instead.

Summary of Key Points

  • Windows Azure roles represent different types of supported applications or services.
  • There are two types of roles: Web roles and worker roles.
  • Each role is assigned its own VM.

•   •   •

This excerpt is from the book, "SOA with .NET & Windows Azure: Realizing Service-Orientation with the Microsoft Platform", edited and co-authored by Thomas Erl, with David Chou, John deVadoss, Nitin Ghandi, Hanu Kommapalati, Brian Loesgen, Christoph Schittko, Herbjörn Wilhelmsen, and Mickie Williams, with additional contributions from Scott Golightly, Daryl Hogan, Jeff King, and Scott Seely, published by Prentice Hall Professional, June 2010, ISBN 0131582313, Copyright 2010 SOA Systems Inc. For a complete Table of Contents please visit: www.informit.com/title/0131582313

Authors
David Chou is a technical architect at Microsoft and is based in Los Angeles. His focus is on collaborating with enterprises and organizations in such areas as cloud computing, SOA, Web, distributed systems, and security.

John deVadoss leads the Patterns & Practices team at Microsoft and is based in Redmond, WA.

Thomas Erl is the world's top-selling SOA author, series editor of the Prentice Hall Service-Oriented Computing Series from Thomas Erl (www.soabooks.com), and editor of the SOA Magazine (www.soamag.com).

Nitin Gandhi is an enterprise architect and an independent software consultant, based in Vancouver, BC.

Hanu Kommalapati is a Principal Platform Strategy Advisor for a Microsoft Developer and Platform Evangelism team based in North America.

Brian Loesgen is a Principal SOA Architect with Microsoft, based in San Diego. His extensive experience includes building sophisticated enterprise, ESB and SOA solutions.

Christoph Schittko is an architect for Microsoft, based in Texas. His focus is to work with customers to build innovative solutions that combine software + services for cutting edge user experiences and the leveraging of service-oriented architecture (SOA) solutions.

Herbjörn Wilhelmsen is a consultant at Forefront Consulting Group, based in Stockholm, Sweden. His main areas of focus are Service-Oriented Architecture, Cloud Computing and Business Architecture.

Mickey Williams leads the Technology Platform Group at Neudesic, based in Laguna Hills,

Contributors
Scott Golightly is currently an Enterprise Solution Strategist with Advaiya, Inc; he is also a Microsoft Regional Director with more than 15 years of experience helping clients to create solutions to business problems with various technologies.

Darryl Hogan is an architect with more than 15 years experience in the IT industry. Darryl has gained significant practical experience during his career as a consultant, technical evangelist and architect.

As a Senior Technical Product Manager at Microsoft, Kris works with customers, partners, and industry analysts to ensure the next generation of Microsoft technology meets customers' requirements for building distributed, service-oriented solutions.

Jeff King has been working with the Windows Azure platform since its first announcement at PDC 2008 and works with Windows Azure early adopter customers in the Windows Azure TAP

Scott Seely is co-founder of Tech in the Middle, www.techinthemiddle.com, and president of Friseton, LLC.

More Stories By Thomas Erl

Thomas Erl is a best-selling IT author and founder of Arcitura Education Inc., a global provider of vendor-neutral educational services and certification that encompasses the Cloud Certified Professional (CCP) and SOA Certified Professional (SOACP) programs from CloudSchool.com™ and SOASchool.com® respectively. Thomas has been the world's top-selling service technology author for nearly a decade and is the series editor of the Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl, as well as the editor of the Service Technology Magazine. With over 175,000 copies in print world-wide, his eight published books have become international bestsellers and have been formally endorsed by senior members of many major IT organizations and academic institutions. To learn more, visit: www.thomaserl.com

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Smart Cities are here to stay, but for their promise to be delivered, the data they produce must not be put in new siloes. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mathias Herberts, Co-founder and CTO of Cityzen Data, discussed the best practices that will ensure a successful smart city journey.
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
"Tintri was started in 2008 with the express purpose of building a storage appliance that is ideal for virtualized environments. We support a lot of different hypervisor platforms from VMware to OpenStack to Hyper-V," explained Dan Florea, Director of Product Management at Tintri, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization...
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet and...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, director/senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Why do your mobile transformations need to happen today? Mobile is the strategy that enterprise transformation centers on to drive customer engagement. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Roger Woods, Director, Mobile Product & Strategy – Adobe Marketing Cloud, covered key IoT and mobile trends that are forcing mobile transformation, key components of a solid mobile strategy and explored how brands are effectively driving mobile change throughout the enterprise.
IoT is at the core or many Digital Transformation initiatives with the goal of re-inventing a company's business model. We all agree that collecting relevant IoT data will result in massive amounts of data needing to be stored. However, with the rapid development of IoT devices and ongoing business model transformation, we are not able to predict the volume and growth of IoT data. And with the lack of IoT history, traditional methods of IT and infrastructure planning based on the past do not app...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
"LinearHub provides smart video conferencing, which is the Roundee service, and we archive all the video conferences and we also provide the transcript," stated Sunghyuk Kim, CEO of LinearHub, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. @ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Discover top technologies and tools all under one roof at April 24–28, 2017, at the Westin San Diego in San Diego, CA. Explore the Mobile Dev + Test and IoT Dev + Test Expo and enjoy all of these unique opportunities: The latest solutions, technologies, and tools in mobile or IoT software development and testing. Meet one-on-one with representatives from some of today's most innovative organizations
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain. In this power panel at @...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
"A lot of times people will come to us and have a very diverse set of requirements or very customized need and we'll help them to implement it in a fashion that you can't just buy off of the shelf," explained Nick Rose, CTO of Enzu, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
The WebRTC Summit New York, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is now open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 20th International Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo. WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web co...